By the conventional definition, there are 44 countries in the European Union but if you add countries that share a border with Asia, the number rises to 51. Some of these countries have famous capitals with rich history and culture.

Enjoy learning about all the European capitals.

European capitals

European capital cities starting with A

Amsterdam | Netherlands | 872,680 Inhabitants

Amsterdam is the largest and most popular city in the Netherlands. Amsterdam is the official capital city of the Netherlands though the Hague is the administrative capital  and the home of the court and government

Amsterdam is nicknamed the “Venice of the North” thanks to its large number of canals crisscrossing its city center. It is home to numerous tourist attractions, some of which are UNESCO World Heritage sites.

In addition to the famous Canal Ring, the city of the center of Amsterdam is also home to a host of museums, entertainment hubs, and luxurious shopping options.

Andorra la Vella | Andorra | 323,886 Inhabitants

Located atop the eastern edge of the Pyrenees between Spain and France, the city of Andorra la Vella is one of the highest European capitals despite having a relatively small urban area. Andorra la Vella is a term that means “Andorra the Town”, which helps differentiate the city from the larger Principality of Andorra.

The main industry in Andorra la Vella is tourism, but the city is also a haven for many expats.

Athens | Greece |3,153,000 Inhabitants

The historical city of Athens is believed to be more than 3,400 years old and it was inhabited as early as the 11th and 7th millennium BC. The ancient city was a powerful city-state in the ancient world.

As the capital city of the Greeks, classical Athens was known for being the center for learning, arts, and philosophy. Its rich history and culture can only be compared to the city of Rome in Italy.  

athens with kids

Europe capitals starting with B

Baku | Azerbaijan | 2,293,700 Inhabitants

Spanning an area of 2,140 square kilometers, Baku is the capital city of Azerbaijan. It is also the largest city within the Caucasus region. Baku is located 28 meters below sea level, making it the lowest-lying capital city on the planet.

The city is the main economic, cultural, and scientific center as well as one of the most important tourist attractions in Azerbaijan.

Belfast | Northern Ireland | 341,877 Inhabitants

Belfast is the largest and capital city of Northern Ireland located along the River Lagan. Based on occupants and size, Belfast is the 12th largest city in the United Kingdom, with London being the largest. It is a major port that contributed significantly to Ireland’s Industrial Revolution and at some point; it was the biggest linen-exporter in the world.

Belgrade |Serbia | 1,166,763 Inhabitants

Serbia is one of the smallest countries in Europe and its capital Belgrade is among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the continent and the world. Vinca culture is among the most popular ancient cultures in Europe.

Berlin | Germany | 3,769,495 Inhabitants

Berlin is one of the most popular and important cities in Germany and Europe. It is perhaps known for the infamous Berlin wall, whose remains are still present throughout the city. Berlin is located on the banks of River Spree, but it is also homes to topographical features such as lakes and boroughs formed by the Havel, Spree, and Dahme rivers.

Berlin, Brandenburg Gate – one of the European Landmarks

Bern | Switzerland | 144,000 Inhabitants

With around 144,000 people, Bern is the fifth-most populous city in Switzerland. It is known by Swiss as their federal city, and it features 36 municipalities. In Germany, they call it Berner, in Italy Bernese, France Bernois, and the United Kingdom Bernese.

Bratislava | Slovakia | 437,726 Inhabitants

Located along the Danube River, Bratislava is the capital and the largest city in Slovakia, with 43,726 people within the city boundaries. Since it is located just 80 kilometers away from Vienna, these two are one of the closest capital cities in Europe. Small Bratislava with charming castle and old town is a perfect spot for one day visit out of Vienna. You can get there via car, bus, train or by speedboat along the Danube.

Brussels | Belgium | 1,208,542 Inhabitants

Brussels is the capital city of Belgium and the capital of the European Union for more than thirty years. Initially, the city consisted of a predominantly Dutch-speaking population, but this changed in the 19th century to French. Brussels is a widely known European capital thanks to its long art history.

Bucharest | Romania | 1,883,425 Inhabitants

Bucharest is the largest and capital city of Romania. It is located in the southeastern part of the country and straddles the banks of the Dambovita River north of the Danube River and the border with Bulgaria.

Budapest | Hungary | 1,752,286 Inhabitants

This Hungarian capital was ranked number one as the Best European Destinations 2020 by Big7 Media as well as third-best European city to visit in a research conducted by Which?

Rainbow over Budapest, Hungary

Budapest is the ninth-largest capital in European Union by number of people within the city proper. It is both a city and a county.

Europe capitals starting with C

Cardiff | Wales | 366,903 Inhabitants

Cardiff is the largest and capital city of Wales and county of Cardiff. A few years ago, the city was ranked sixth worldwide in National Geographic magazine’s list of alternative tourist destinations.

Based on its population and size, Cardiff is the eleventh-largest city in the UK.

Chișinău | Moldova | 532,513 Inhabitants

The city of Moldova is the main commercial and industrial center of the Republic of Moldova. Though it is less known compared to other European cities, Chisinau is quite a beautiful capital city. It is located on the banks of River Bac in central Moldova.

Copenhagen | Denmark | 632,340 Inhabitants

Danish capital – Copenhagen, is famous for being the city of fairy tales. It is considered by many to be the most jovial city on the planet, but besides that, it is home to one of the most delicious cuisines you will ever taste.

European capitals starting with D and E

Dublin | Ireland | 554,543 Inhabitants

Lying within Leinster Province, Dublin is the largest city in Ireland with around 550K people in its city boundaries and 1.9 million in the Greater Dublin Area. In the 17th century, Dublin had grown so rapidly that it was at some point the second largest urban center in the British Empire after London.

Edinburgh | Scotland | 488,050 Inhabitants

Edinburgh is known for costing the annual General Assembly of the Church of Scotland as well as being home to cultural institutions like the National Library, the National Museum of Scotland, and the Scottish National Gallery.

Edinburgh Scotland

Capitals of Europe starting with G,H and K

Helsinki | Finland | 657,674 Inhabitants

The city of Helsinki in Finland attracts travelers with its sea-facing landscape, historical architecture and design, and Nordic cuisine. It is also very compact that you can explore on foot or by bike.  

Helsinki Finland

Kyiv | Ukraine | 2,967,360 Inhabitants

Located in north-central Ukraine on the banks of the Dnieper River, Kyiv or Kiev is the largest and most populous city in Ukraine. It is an important industrial, educational, scientific, and cultural center of not only Ukraine but of Eastern Europe.

European capitals starting with L

Lisbon | Portugal | 505,526 Inhabitants

For many years, Lisbon has been an important port city of Portugal one of the top places to visit in the country. It is an alpha-level global city due to its importance in education, arts, entertainment, tourism, international trade, media, commerce, and finance.

Ljubljana | Slovenia | 295,504 Inhabitants

This hard to pronounce (locally known as lu’blana), is the capital and largest city in Slovenia. It is an important political, administrative, economic, cultural, and educational centre.

Ljubljana Slovenia

London | England | 8,961,980 Inhabitants

London is one of the most populous cities in continental Europe along with Paris, Rome, Moscow, Istanbul, Berlin, and Madrid.

United Kingdom London
United Kingdom London

Luxembourg City | Luxemburg | 124,528 Inhabitants

Located at the confluence of the Petrusse and Alzette rivers, Luxembourg City is the main metropolis of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. It is located 109 kilometers from Cologne, Germany, and is known for its Luxembourg Castle.

European capitals starting with M

Madrid | Spain | 3,223,334 Inhabitants

Known for being home to Museo Reina Sofia where Picasso’s iconic painting Guernica is located, Madrid is the second-largest city in the European Union, behind only Berlin of Germany based on the number of residents within its city limits, and also second-largest in the EU based on the metropolitan area, surpassed only the Paris in France.

Spain, Madrid

Madrid is home to many Spanish Landmarks.

Minsk | Belarus | 2,020,600 Inhabitants

Minsk is the largest metropolis in Belarus. It is located in the Niamiha and Svislac rivers. Its earliest record indicates that it has been inhabited since the 11th century. Minsk has a unique history and culture dating many centuries ago.

Monaco | Monaco | 38,300 inhabitants

Monaco is a city-state located on the French Riviera near the border of Italy and France. It is notoriously known for being among the most expensive and wealthiest places on the planet. It is also one of the smallest countries in the world, along with Vatican City, Andorra, Malta, San Marino, and Liechtenstein.

Country Capital

Moscow | Russia | 12,593,000 Inhabitants

Although a large part of Russia is in Asia, Moscow is located in Eastern Europe. With a population of more than 20 million within its metropolitan area, Moscow is one of the most populous world capitals.

Russia, Moscow

European capitals starting with N and O

Nuuk | Greenland | 18,326 Inhabitants

Even though Greenland is the biggest island in the world its capital Nuuk is home to only 18k people, which counts for nearly a third of the island’s total country population. Greenland is one of the coldest countries in the world.


Oslo | Norway | 697,549 Inhabitants

Oslo is the largest urban center in Norway as well as the seat of government. The population within its city limits is around 600K but its metropolitan area is home to more than 1.7 million people.

European capitals starting with P

Paris | France | 2,175,601 Inhabitants

The City of Lights (other nickname city of love) is known for being home to the Eiffel Tower, Notre Dame, the Louvre, and the Moulin Rouge among other French Landmarks and attractions. It is one of the most visited cities in the world and among the most beautiful cities in Europe.

Paris France

Podgorica | Montenegro | 150,977 Inhabitans

Previously known as Titograd (Facts about Montenegro). Podgorica is the largest city in Montenegro. Podgorica is not the most beautiful city we ever visit but is close to beautiful places like Stari Bar or Kotor.

Millenium bridge - Podgorica

Prague | Czech Republic | 1,324,277 Inhabitants

Prague is one of the most important European cities and the 13th largest in the European Union. It is a cultural, political, and economic center of Europe. One of the famous landmarks in Prague is Charles Bridge.

Pristina | Kosovo | 145,149 Inhabitants

Located in the northeastern section of Kosovo, Pristina is a beautiful city that is home to around 140k people. It is close to the Goljak mountains as well as the cities of Podgorica, Belgrade, Tirana and, Skopje.

European capitals starting with R

Reykjavík | Iceland | 131,136 Inhabitants

Reykjavik is not only the largest urban center but it is the spot of the first permanent settlement in Iceland – facts about Iceland. It is home to around 130K people. While in Reykjavik you can try all the strange traditional Icelandic Food, Few kilometres outside you can admire amazing Icelandic Landscapes.

Reykjavik, Iceland in Winter

Riga | Latvia | 627,487 Inhabitants

Home to around 600k people, Riga is the capital city of Latvia as well as the largest in the three Baltic states. With its comparatively large population, the city is home to almost a third of the country’s population.

Rome | Italy | 2,860,009 Inhabitants

Known for delicious foods such as lasagna, spaghetti, gelato, and pizza. Rome known as the eternal city is full (read facts about Rome) of amazing sites like the Colosseum, Forum Romanum and lots of Piazza with Fountains and obelisks.

Italy, Rome

European capitals starting with S

City of San Marino | San Marino | |4,071 Inhabitants

Located in the country’s highest point, the City of San Marino is the largest in the Republic of San Marino. It is home to 7 parishes and other tourist attractions suitable for one-day adventure.

Sarajevo | Bosnia & Herzegovina | 275,569 Inhabitants

History is probably not that kind to Sarajevo- the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, having been the spot where the assignation of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie took place, setting off a chain of events that led to the First World War.

Skopje | North Macedonia | 506,926 Inhabitants

This capital has a long history that is rich with customs and traditions as well as a unique collection of monuments and memorials.

Sofia | Bulgaria | 1,242,568 Inhabitants

Sofia is an important cultural center in Southeast Europe. It is home to the National Palace of Culture, the National Opera and Ballet of Bulgaria, and The National Archaeological Museum.

Stockholm | Sweden | 975,904 Inhabitants

Famed for being home to the first open-air museum in the world, its legendary city hall, and the Abba museum, Stockholm is the capital and most populous metropolitan in Sweden and Scandinavia.

Sukhumi | Republic of Abkhazia | 65,439 Inhabitants

Sukhumi is the capital of the partially recognized Republic of Abkhazia within Georgia territory. It is home to around 65k people.

European capitals starting with T

Tallinn | Estonia | 437,619 Inhabitants

The port city of Tallinn is the seat of the government of Estonia, known for being home to more startups per capita compared to any other European capital. Skype was actually invented here!

Tbilisi | Georgia | 1,171,100 Inhabitants

Located right on the crossroads between Asia and Europe, Tbilisi plays an important role in the energy and trade between the two continents.

Tirana | Republic of Albania | 557,422 Inhabitants

Tirana is the capital and largest city in the Republic of Albania and is situated at the center of the country fringed by mountains and hills. Even though Tirana changed a lot since the political system change you still feel the communistic past of the country almost in every part of the city. to learn more about Albania facts and history I recommend visit in BunkArt2 museum

Skanderbeg Square

Tórshavn |Faroe Islands | 16,165 Inhabitants

This is the largest and capital city of the Faroe Islands. The name can mean Thor’s harbor in Faroese. Torshavn became the capital of the islands in AD 850.

European capitals starting with V

Vaduz | Liechtenstein | 5,696 Inhabitants

Located on the banks of the Rhine River, Vaduz is the capital of Liechtenstein and the seat of the national parliament. It has a small population of around 5, 600 people.

Valletta | Malta | 5,827 Inhabitants

Valletta is one of the southernmost European capital, along with Nicosia, and with just 0.61 square kilometers, it is one of the smallest capital cities in the European Union.

Vatican City | Vatican | 825 Inhabitants

With only 0.49 square kilometers, Vatican City is not only the smallest city in Europe but the smallest country in the world based on its population (825 people) and size 0.17 sq mile

Vienna | Austria | 1,911,191 Inhabitants

The city of Vienna was ranked first worldwide for its culture of innovation in two consecutive years in 2007 and 2008. The city has usually used an example by urban planners.

Vilnius | Lithuania | 587,581 Inhabitants

Vilnius is an attractive capital of Lithuania in Eastern Europe and the Baltic region. The city is located in the southern part of the country and is second-largest of capital cities in Baltic states.

European capitals starting with W and Z

Warsaw | Poland | 1,793,579

Once a dull and drab city, Warsaw has significantly changed these days, giving capital cities of Moscow, Paris, and London a run for their money in terms of tall buildings.

Westside | Gibraltar | 20,681 Inhabitants

Westside is the largest city and de facto capital of Gibraltar and is located between the foot of the Rock of Gibraltar and on the eastern coast of the Bay of Gibraltar.

Zagreb | Croatia | 807,254 Inhabitants

Zagreb in Croatia is one of the European capital cities with a rich history and culture dating from the Roman period. It is considered a global city and is the main center for industry, transportation, research, and education in Croatia.

European Capital City – Pin It

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